LIS Model / Theory Research Summary

Here you will find the requirements and guidelines for the assignment followed by an assignment helper to get you started!

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Description:
The purpose of this assignment is to introduce you to a major Library and Information Science (LIS) model or theory related to information behavior that may be used as a theoretical framework for your research paper. From the early modules devoted to information behavior, you will have the opportunity to learn about a variety of theories that may be applicable to your chosen information community. Some of these theories have been developed by scholars in LIS, while others were developed in related disciplines. Our attention will focus on those theories that are most likely to be applicable to your research paper.

Requirements:
Students will select an LIS theory or model from the list provided below and write a research summary on the topic. The LIS Model/Theory Research Summary, excluding the reference list, should be a minimum of 750 words in length and no more than 1000 words. It should be double spaced and in APA 7 format. The summary will include a brief statement identifying the theory or model of interest, how it might apply to the chosen information community, and what related studies have utilized the theory or model as a framework. The research summary should follow the following format:

Name/Title of Model or Theory

Summarize the model or theory in your own words and answer these questions: Who developed the theory? What questions or hypotheses lead to the development of the model or theory? Is the model focused on a specific type of information behavior or type of community?

Describe how the model or theory provides a lens for understanding the information behaviors of your chosen community.

List the other scholars who have used the model or theory as a framework in their research. Briefly describe those studies and what insights they give you about information behavior.

Submission:

  • Worth 10 points, which is 10% of your final grade.
  • Must be a minimum of 750 words in length and no more than 1000 maximum, double spaced, and in APA 7 style format.
  • Submit your finished paper to Canvas (not your blog) using the naming convention: “LastName_NameofAssignment” as a PDF or Word document.
  • All assignments are due on Sundays unless otherwise noted and must be turned in by 11:59 p.m. PT.
  • If life circumstances require students to request an extension, please do so several days before the assignment is due or as soon as possible.

The LIS Model/Theory Research Summary assignment utilizes the work of Barbara M. Wildemuth, specifically large portions of her list of LIS models and theories. The INLS 877 website, UNC-CH, 2011, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 United States License. Address all comments and questions to Barbara M. Wildemuth at wildemuth@unc.edu. This page was last modified on January 4, 2013, by Barbara M. Wildemuth.

Assignment Helper – LIS Model/Theory Research Summary

This assignment helper is a step-by-step guide for successfully completing the LIS Model/Theory Research Summary assignment. This assignment will help introduce you to a number of instrumental and foundational models and theories within library and information science. You will select a single model or theory for this summary.

Getting Started:

  • Browse the listed models and theories presented and consider how different models/theories relate to your chosen information community.
  • Consider what models/theories could be used in your final research paper.
  • Select a single model or theory from the list provided below that relates to the information seeking behaviors of your chosen information community.

Completing the LIS Model/Theory Research Summary:

  • Include a brief statement identifying the theory or model of interest, how it might apply to the chosen information community, and what related studies have utilized the theory or model as a framework. 
  • Your summary will follow the following format: 
    • Name/title of the model or theory
    • Summarize the model or theory in your own words while answering the following questions: Who developed the theory? What questions or hypotheses lead to the development of the model or theory? Is the model focused on a specific type of information behavior or type of community?
    • Describe how this model or theory provides a lens for understanding the different information behaviors of your specific information community. 
    • Briefly list and describe other scholars who have utilized the model or theory as a framework in their research and how the work of these scholars have provided insights about information behavior. 

Before submitting your assignment:

  • Spell and grammar check your document.   
  • Double check your use of APA 7 formatting.
  • Take a break from your document and come back later to proofread it (manually).  
  • Ask a peer to proofread your document – offer to do the same for them.
  • If you submit your assignment on Canvas prior to the due date and discover you have corrections to make, you can re-submit your assignment prior to the deadline.
  • Submit your finished paper to Canvas (not your blog) using the naming convention: “LastName_NameofAssignment” as a PDF or Word document. 
  • All assignments are due on Sundays unless otherwise noted and must be turned in by 11:59 p.m. PT.  
  • If life circumstances require students to request an extension, please do so several days before the assignment is due or as soon as possible.

Submission:

  • Worth 10 points, which is 10% of your final grade.
  • Must be a minimum of 750 words in length and no more than 1000 maximum, double spaced, and in APA 7 format.
  • Submit your finished paper to Canvas (not your blog) using the naming convention: “LastName_NameofAssignment” as a PDF or Word document.
  • All assignments are due on Sundays unless otherwise noted and must be turned in by 11:59 p.m. PT.
  • If life circumstances require students to request an extension, please do so several days before the assignment is due or as soon as possible.

Sampling of LIS Models and Theories

A general model of information behavior (Wilson):

●  Case, D.O., Andrews, J.E., Johnson, J. D., and Allard, S.L., “Avoiding versus Seeking: The Relationship of Information Seeking to Avoidance, Blunting, Coping, Dissonance, and Related Concepts,” Journal of the Medical Library Association, 93, no. 3: 353.

●  Wilson, T. (1997). Information behaviour: An inter-disciplinary perspective. In Vakkari, P., Savolainen, R., & Dervin, B. (eds.), Information Seeking in Context: Proceedings of an International Conference on Research in Information Needs, Seeking and Use in Different Contexts (August 14-16, 1996, Tampere, Finland). Taylor Graham, 39-50.

●  Wilson, T. (1999). Exploring models of information behaviour: The “Uncertainty” Project. Information Processing & Management, 35(6), 839-850.

●  Wilson, T.D. (1999). Models in information behaviour research. Journal of Documentation, 55(3), 249-270.

●  Wilson, T.D. (2005). Evolution in information behavior modeling: Wilson’s model. In Fisher, K.E., Erdelez, S., & McKechnie, L. (E.F.) (eds.), Theories of Information Behavior. Medford, NJ: Information Today, for ASIST, 31-36. [SILS Library – ZA3075 .T465 2005]

Information search process (ISP) model (Kuhlthau):

●  Kuhlthau, C.C. (1991). Inside the search process: Information seeking from the user’s perspective. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 42(5), 361-371. [UNC libraries]

●  Kuhlthau, C.C. (1993). Seeking Meaning: A Process Approach to Library and Information Services. Norwood, NJ: Ablex. [SILS Library – Z711 .Z84 1993]

●  Kuhlthau, C. (1998). Investigating patterns in information seeking: Concepts in context. In Wilson, T.D., & Allen, D.K. (eds.), Exploring the contexts of information behaviour : proceedings of the Second International Conference on Research in Information Needs. Seeking and Use in Different Contexts (August13-15, 1998, Sheffield, UK). Taylor Graham. [SILS Library – Z674.2 .I558 1998]

●  Kuhlthau, C.C. (2005). Kuhlthau’s information search process. In Fisher, K.E., Erdelez, S., & McKechnie, L. (E.F.) (eds.), Theories of Information Behavior. Medford, NJ: Information Today, for ASIST, 230-234. [SILS Library – ZA3075 .T465 2005]

● Kuhlthau, C.C., Heinström, J., & Todd, R.J. (2008). The ‘information search process’ revisited: Is the model still useful? Information Research, 13(4). http://informationr.net/ir/13-4/paper355.html.

Berrypicking (Bates); Information foraging theory (Pirolli et al.):

●  Bates, M.J. (1989). The design of browsing and berrypicking techniques for the online search interface. Online Review, 13(5), 407-424.

●  Bates, M.J. (2005). Berrypicking. In Fisher, K.E., Erdelez, S., & McKechnie, L. (E.F.) (eds.), Theories of Information Behavior. Medford, NJ: Information Today, for ASIST, 58-62. [SILS Library – ZA3075 .T465 2005]

●  Bates, M.J. (2007). What is browsing–really? A model drawing from behavioural science research. Information Research, 12(4). http://informationr.net/ir/12-4/paper330.html. Pirolli, P., & Card, S. (1999). Information foraging. Psychological Review, 106(4), 643-675.

●  Chi, E.H., Pirolli, P., & Pitkow, J. (2000). The scent of a site: A system for analyzing and predicting information scent, usage, and usability of a Web site. CHI 2000 Conference Proceedings: Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 161-168.

●  Hjorland, B. (2011). The importance of theories of knowledge: Browsing as an example. Journal of the American Society for Information Science & Technology, 62(3), 594-603.

●  Pirolli, P. (2003). Exploring and finding information. In Carroll, J.M. (ed.), HCI Models, Theories, and Frameworks: Toward a Multidisciplinary Science. Amsterdam: Moran Kaufmann, 157-192. [SILS Library – QA76.9.H85 C367 2003]

●  Sandstrom, P.E. (1994). An optimal foraging approach to information seeking and use. Library Quarterly, 64(4), 414-449.

●  Pirolli, P., & Card, S. (1999). Information foraging. Psychological Review, 106(4), 643-675.

●  Withrow, J. (2002). Do your links stink? Techniques for good web information scent. Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science & Technology, 28(5), 7-9.

Serious Leisure:

● Elsweiler, D., Wilson, M.L., and Lund, B.K., “Understanding Casual-Leisure Information Behavior,” in New Directions in Information Behavior, eds. Amanda Spink and Jannica Heinström (Bingley, UK: Emerald Group Publishing, 2011).

●  Hartel, J. (2003). The serious leisure frontier in library and information science: hobby domains. Knowledge Organization, 30(3/4), 228–238.

●  Hartel. J. (2005). Serious leisure. In K. E. Fisher & L. McKechnie (Eds.), Theories of information behavior (pp. 313–317). Medford, NJ: Information Today.

●  Hartel, J. (2010a). Leisure and hobby information and its user. In M. J. Bates (Ed.), Encyclopedia of library and information sciences (3rd ed.) (pp. 3263–3274). New York, NY: Taylor and Francis.

●  Hartel, J. (2010b). Managing documents at home for serious leisure: a case study of the hobby of gourmet cooking. Journal of Documentation, 66(6), 847–874.

●  Hektor, A. (2001). What’s the use: Internet and information behavior in everyday life (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from http://liu.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2%3A254863&dswid=-905 1

●  Stebbins, R.A. (1994). The liberal arts hobbies: a neglected subtype of serious leisure. Loisir et Société / Society and Leisure, 17(1), 173–186.

●  Stebbins, R.A. (2001a). New directions in the theory and research of serious leisure. Lewistion, NY: Edwin Mellen Press. (Mellen studies in sociology)

●  Stebbins, R.A. (2001b). Serious leisure. Society, 38(4), 53–57.

●  Stebbins, R.A. (2005). Project-based leisure: theoretical neglect of a common use of free time. Leisure Studies, 24(1), 1–11.

●  Stebbins, R.A. (2009). Leisure and its relationship to library and information science: bridging the gap. Library Trends, 57(4), 618–631.

Radical Change Theory (Dresang):

● Dresang, E. (2006). Intellectual freedom and libraries: Complexity and change in the twenty‐first‐century digital environment. The Library Quarterly, 76(2), 169-192. doi: 10.1086/506576

Sense-Making Theory and Methodology (SSTM; Dervin):

● Dervin, B. (1992). From the mind’s eye of the user: The sense-making qualitative-quantitative methodology. In Glazier, J.D., & Powell, R.R. (eds.), Qualitative Research in Information Management. Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited, 61-84. [SILS Library – Z669.7 .Q35 1992]

●  Dervin, B. (1998). Sense-making theory and practice: An overview of user interests in knowledge seeking and use. Journal of Knowledge Management, 2(2), 36-46.

●  Devin, B. (1999). On studying information seeking methodologically: The implications of connecting metatheory to method. Information Processing & Management, 35(6), 727-750.

●  Dervin, B.; Frenette, M. (2001). Sense-Making Methodology: Communicating communicatively with campaign audiences. In Rice, R.; Atkin, C. K. (eds.), Public Communication Campaigns. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 69-87. [Davis Library – HM1226 .P83 2001]

●  Dervin, B., & Foreman-Wernet, L. (with Lauterbach, E.) (eds.). (2003). Sense-Making Methodology Reader: Selected Writings of Brenda Dervin. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press. [Davis Library – P90 .D466 2003]

●  Savolainen, R. (1993). The sense-making theory: Reviewing the interests of a user-centered approach to information seeking and use. Information Processing & Management, 29(1), 13-28. [UNC libraries]

●  Savolainen, R. (2006). Information use as gap-bridging: The viewpoint of sense-making methodology. Journal of the American Society for Information Science & Technology, 57(8), 1116-1125.

●  Tidline, T.J. (2005). Dervin’s sense-making. In Fisher, K.E., Erdelez, S., & McKechnie, L. (E.F.) (eds.), Theories of Information Behavior. Medford, NJ: Information Today, for ASIST, 113-117. [SILS Library – ZA3075 .T465 2005]

Information seeking model (Ellis):

●  Ellis, D. (1993). Modelling the information seeking patterns of academic researchers: A grounded theory approach. Library Quarterly, 63(4), 469-486.

●  Ellis, D., Cox, D., & Hall, K. (1993). A comparison of the information seeking patterns of researchers in the physical and social sciences. Journal of Documentation, 49(4), 356-369.

●  Ellis, D., & Haugan, M. (1997). Modelling the information seeking patterns of engineers and research scientists in an industrial environment. Journal of Documentation, 53(4), 384-403.

●  Ellis, D. (2005). Ellis’s model of information-seeking behavior. In Fisher, K.E., Erdelez, S., & McKechnie, L. (E.F.) (eds.), Theories of Information Behavior. Medford, NJ: Information Today, for ASIST, 138-142. [SILS Library – ZA3075 .T465 2005]

●  Leckie, G.J. (2005). General model of the information seeking of professionals. In Fisher, K.E., Erdelez, S., & McKechnie, L. (E.F.) (eds.), Theories of Information Behavior. Medford, NJ: Information Today, for ASIST, 158-163. [SILS Library – ZA3075 .T465 2005]

●  Meho, L.I, & Tibbo, H.R. (2003). Modeling the information-seeking behavior of social scientists: Ellis’s study revisited. Journal of the American Society for Information Science & Technology, 54(6), 570-587.

Everyday life information seeking (ELIS; Savolainen):

●  Agosto, D.E., & Hughes-Hassell, S. (2006). Toward a model of the everyday life information needs of urban teenagers, Part 1: Theoretical model. Journal of the American Society for Information Science & Technology, 57(10), 1394-1403.

●  Savolainen, R. (1995). Everyday life information seeking: Approaching information seeking in the context of “way of life”. Library & Information Science Research, 17(3), 259-294.

●  Savolainen, R. (2005). Everyday life information seeking. In Fisher, K.E., Erdelez, S., & McKechnie, L. (E.F.) (eds.), Theories of Information Behavior. Medford, NJ: Information Today, for ASIST, 143-148. [SILS Library – ZA3075 .T465 2005]

●  Savolainen, R. (2008). Everyday Information Practices: A Social Phenomenological Perspective. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press. [SILS Library – ZA3075 .S38 2008]

An integrated social-biological model (Nahl):

●  Nahl, D. (2001). A conceptual framework for explaining information behavior. SIMILE: Studies in Media & Information Literacy Education, 1(2). www.utpjournals.com.

●  Nahl, D. (2007). Social-biological information technology: An integrated conceptual framework. Journal of the American Society for Information Science & Technology, 58(13), 2021-2046. [Available in UNC libraries]

Anomalous states of knowledge (Belkin):

●  Belkin, N.J. (1980). Anomalous states of knowledge as a basis for information retrieval. Canadian Journal of Information Science, 5, 133-143.

●  Belkin, N.J., Oddy, R.N., & Brooks, H.M. (1982). ASK for information retrieval: Part I. Background and theory. Journal of Documentation, 38(2), 61-71.

●  Belkin, N.J. (2005). Anomalous state of knowledge. In Fisher, K.E., Erdelez, S., & McKechnie, L. (E.F.) (eds.), Theories of Information Behavior. Medford, NJ: Information Today, for ASIST, 44-48. [SILS Library – ZA3075 .T465 2005]

●  Brooks, H., Oddy, R.N., & Belkin, N.J. (1979). Representing and classifying anomalous states of knowledge. In MacCafferty, M., & Gray, K. (eds.), The Analysis of Meaning. Informatics 5: Proceedings of a Conference Held by the Aslib Informatics Group and the BCS Information Retrieval Specialist Group (March 26-28, 1979, Queen’s College, Oxford). London: Aslib, 227-238. [SILS Libary folio – P325.5.D38 A5]

●  Oddy, R.N., Palmquist, R.A., & Crawford, M.A. (1986). Representation of anomalous states of knowledge in information retrieval. ASIS ’86: Proceedings of the 49th ASIS Annual Meeting, 23, 248-254.

Relevance as a theoretical construct:

●  Barry, C.L. (1994). User-defined relevance criteria: An exploratory study. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 45(3), 149-159.

●  Borlund, P. (2003). The concept of relevance in IR. Journal of the American Society for Information Science & Technology, 54(10), 913-925.

●  Cooper, W.S. (1971). A definition of relevance for information retrieval. Information Storage & Retrieval, 7, 19-37.

●  Cosijn, E., & Ingwersen, P. (2000). Dimensions of relevance. Information Processing & Management, 36(4), 533-550.

●  Harter, S.P. (1992). Psychological relevance and information science. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 43(9), 602-615.

●  Hjorland, B. (2010). The foundation of the concept of relevance. Journal of the American Society for Information Science & Technology, 61(2), 217-237.

●  Huang, X., & Soergel, D. (2013). Relevance: An improved framework for explicating the notion. Journal of the American Society for Information Science & Technology, 64(1), 18-35.

●  Mizzaro, S. (1997). Relevance: The whole history. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 48(9), 810-832.

●  Park, T.K. (1993). The nature of relevance in information retrieval: An empirical study. Library Quarterly, 63(3), 318-351.

●  Park, T.K. (1994). Toward a theory of user-based relevance: A call for a new paradigm of inquiry. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 45(3), 135-141.

●  Saracevic, T. (1970). The concept of “relevance” in information science: A historical review. In Saracevic, T. (comp.), Introduction to Information Science. New York: Bowker, 111-151. [SILS Library – Z1001 .S24]

●  Saracevic, T. (1975). Relevance: A review of and a framework for the thinking on the notion in information science. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 26(6), 321-343.

●  Saracevic, T. (2007a). Relevance: A review of the literature and a framework for thinking on the notion in information science. Part II: Nature and manifestations of relevance. Journal of the American Society for Information Science & Technology, 58(13), 1915-1933.

●  Saracevic, T. (2007b). Relevance: A review of the literature and a framework for thinking on the notion in information science. Part III: Behavior and effects of relevance. Journal of the American Society for Information Science & Technology, 58(13), 2126-2144.

●  Schamber, L., Eisenberg, M.B., & Nilan, M.S. (1990). A re-examination of relevance: Toward a dynamic, situational definition. Information Processing & Management, 26(6), 755-776.

●  Swanson, D.R. (1986). Subjective versus objective relevance in bibliographic retrieval systems. LIbrary Quarterly, 56,389-398.

●  Toms, E.G., O’Brien, H.L., Kopak, R., & Freund, L. (2005). Searching for relevance in relevance of search. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 3507, 59-78.

●  Wang, P., & White, M.D. (1999). A cognitive model of document use during a research project. Study II: Decisions at the reading and citing stages. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 50(2), 98-114.

●  Wilson, P. (1973). Situational relevance. Information Storage & Retrieval, 9(8), 457-471.

Principle of least effort:

●  Bronstein, J., & Baruchson-Arbib, S. (2008). The application of cost-benefit and least effort theories in studies of information seeking behavior of humanities scholars: the case of Jewish studies scholars in Israel. Journal of Information Science, 34(2), 131-144.

●  Case, D.O. (2005). Principle of least effort. In Fisher, K.E., Erdelez, S., & McKechnie, L. (E.F.) (eds.), Theories of Information Behavior. Medford, NJ: Information Today, for ASIST, 289-292. [SILS Library – ZA3075 .T465 2005]

●  Lafouge, T., & Prime-Claverie, C. (2005). Production and use of information. Characterization of informetric distributions using effort function and density function: Exponential informetric process. Information Processing & Management, 41(6), 1387-1394.

● Zipf, G.K. (1949). Human Behavior and the Principle of Least Effort: An Introduction to Human Ecology. Cambridge, MA: Addison-Wesley. [Davis Library – H91 .Z5]

Information poverty (Chatman):

●  Britz, J.J. (2004). To know or not to know: A moral reflection on information poverty. Journal of Information Science, 30(3), 192-204.

●  Chatman, E.A., & Pendleton, E.M. (1995). Knowledge gap, information seeking and the poor. Reference Librarian, 49/50, 135-145.

●  Chatman, E.A. (1996). The impoverished life-world of outsiders. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 47(3), 193-206.

●  Fulton, C. (2010). An ordinary life in the round: Elfreda Annmary Chatman. Libraries & the Cultural Record, 45(2), 238-259.

●  Haider, J., & Bawden, D. (2007). Conceptions of ‘information poverty’ in LIS: A discourse analysis. Journal of Documentation, 63(4), 534-557.

●  Hersberger, J. (2003). Are the economically poor information poor? Does the digital divide affect the homeless and access to information? Canadian Journal of Information and Library Science, 27(3), 45-63.

●  Hersberger, J. (2005). Chatman’s information poverty. In Fisher, K.E., Erdelez, S., & McKechnie, L. (E.F.) (eds.), Theories of Information Behavior. Medford, NJ: Information Today, for ASIST, 75-78. [SILS Library – ZA3075 .T465 2005]

●  Lingel, J. and Boyd, D. “‘Keep It Secret, Keep It Safe’: Information Poverty, Information Norms, and Stigma,” Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 64, no. 5 (2013): 981–91.

●  Thompson, K.M. (2009). Remembering Elfreda Chatman, a champion of theory development in library and information science education. Journal of Education for Library and Information Science, 50(2), 119-126.

Life in the round (Chatman):

●  Chatman, E.A. (1999). A theory of life in the round. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 50(3), 207-217.

●  Fulton, C. (2005). Chatman’s life in the round. In Fisher, K.E., Erdelez, S., & McKechnie, L. (E.F.) (eds.), Theories of Information Behavior. Medford, NJ: Information Today, for ASIST, 79-82. [SILS Library – ZA3075 .T465 2005]

●  Fulton, C. (2010). An ordinary life in the round: Elfreda Annmary Chatman. Libraries & the Cultural Record, 45(2), 238-259.

●  Solomon, P. (1999). Information mosaics: Patterns of action that structure. In Wilson, T.D., & Allen, D.K. (eds.), Exploring the Contexts of Information Behaviour. Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Research in Information Needs, Seeking and Use in Different Contexts (Sheffield, UK, 1998). London: Taylor Graham, 150-175. [SILS Library – Z674.2 .I558 1998]

● Thompson, K.M. (2009). Remembering Elfreda Chatman, a champion of theory development in library and information science education. Journal of Education for Library and Information Science, 50(2), 119-126.

Information encountering (Erdelez):

●  Case, D.O., Andrews, J.E., Johnson, J.D., and Allard, S.L., “Avoiding versus Seeking: The Relationship of Information Seeking to Avoidance, Blunting, Coping, Dissonance, and Related Concepts,” Journal of the Medical Library Association 93, no. 3: 353.

●  Erdelez, S. (1996). Information encountering: A conceptual framework for accidental information discovery. In Vakkari, P., Savolainen, R., & Dervin, B. (eds.), Information Seeking in Context. Proceedings of an International Conference on Research in Information Needs, Seeking and Use in Different Contexts. London: Taylor Graham, 412-421. [SILS Library – Z674.2 .I558 1996]

●  Erdelez, S. (1999). Information encountering: It’s more than just bumping into information. Bulletin of ASIST, 25(3), 25-29.

●  Erdelez, S., & Rioux, K. (2000). Sharing information encountered for others on the Web. New Review of Information Behaviour Research, 1, 219-233.

●  Erdelez, S. (2004). Investigation of information encountering in the controlled research environment. Information Processing & Management, 40(6), 1013-1025.

●  Erdelez, S. (2005). Information encountering. In Fisher, K.E., Erdelez, S., & McKechnie, L. (E.F.) (eds.), Theories of Information Behavior. Medford, NJ: Information Today, for ASIST, 179-184. [SILS Library – ZA3075 .T465 2005]

●  Heinström, J. (2006). Psychological factors behind incidental information acquisition. Library & Information Science Research, 28(4), 579-594.

●  Pasldottir, A. (2010). The connection between purposive information seeking and information encountering: A study of Icelanders’ health and lifestyle information seeking. Journal of Documentation, 66(2), 224-244.

Information grounds (Fisher):

● Counts, S., & Fisher, K.E. (2010). Mobile social networking as information ground: A case study. Library & Information Science Research, 32(2), 98-115.

●  Fisher, K.E., Durrance, J.C., & Hinton, M.B. (2004). Information grounds and the use of need-based services by immigrants in Queens, New York: A context-based, outcome evaluation approach. Journal of the American Society for Information Science & Technology, 55(8), 754-766.

●  Fisher, K.E., Landry, C.F., and Naumer, C.M., “Social Spaces, Casual Interactions, Meaningful Exchanges: ‘Information Ground’ Characteristics Based on the College Student Experience,” Information Research 12, no. 2, paper 291, http://InformationR.net/ir/12-1/paper291.html.

●  Fisher, K.E. (2005). Information grounds. In Fisher, K.E., Erdelez, S., & McKechnie, L. (E.F.) (eds.), Theories of Information Behavior. Medford, NJ: Information Today, for ASIST, 185-191. [SILS Library – ZA3075 .T465 2005]

●  Fisher, K.E., & Naumer, C.M. (2006). Information grounds: Theoretical basis and empirical findings on information flow in social settings. In Spink, A., & Cole, C. (eds.), New Directions in Human Information Behavior. Springer, 93-111.

●  Mejova, Y., and Kourtellis, N., “YouTubing at Home: Media Sharing Behaviour Change as Proxy for Mobility around COVID-19 Lockdowns,” arXiv 2103, 14601 (2021), https://arxiv.org/abs/2103.14601.

●  Savolainen, R. (2009). Small world and information grounds as contexts of information seeking and sharing. Library & Information Science Research, 31(1), 38-45.

* Note: You are also welcomed and encouraged to browse for additional resources and possible sources through the books used for this course. While not all chapters from selected texts are assigned as mandatory readings, chapters that are not assigned do contain valuable information related to this project, the overall course, and library and information science as a whole. For example, there was an assigned reading from Looking for Information: A Survey of Research on Information Seeking, Needs, and Behavior during week 3 of this course. This text contains other chapters that can be used for this project and your research paper.