Virtual Communities References List

Hey all – I mentioned this a few times in comments on your blogging. The first serious lit review I wrote  in my doc program was on virtual communities. Here’s the reference list. It may be of interest, especially for those of you looking closely at communities born on the Web, etc. Note – there has been much more research published in the last 15+ years on this topic! Be sure to look for newer articles too.


Baker, P. M. A., & Ward, A. C. (2002). Bridging temporal and spatial gaps: the role of information and communication technologies in defining communities. Information, Communication & Society, 5(2), 207-224.

Bieber, M., Engelbart, D., Furata, R., Hiltz, S. R., Noll, J., Preece, J., et al. (2002). Toward virtual community knowledge evolution. Journal of Management Information Systems, 18(4), 11-35.

Blanchard, A. (2004). Blogs as Virtual Communities: Identifying a Sense of Community in the  Julie/Julia Project. Retrieved October 1, 2004, from

Burnett, G. (2000). Information exchange in virtual communities: a typology. Retrieved August 31, 2004, 2004, from

Burnett, G. (2002). The Scattered members of an invisible republic: virtual communities and Paul Ricoeur’s Hermeneutics. The Library Quarterly, 72(2), 155-178.

Burnett, G., & Bonnici, L. (2003). Beyond the FAQ: explicit and implicit norms in Usenet newsgroups. Library & Information Science Research(25), 333-351.

Burnett, G., Dickey, M. H., Kazmer, M., & Chudoba, K. (2003). Inscription and interpretation of text: a cultural hermeneutic examination of virtual community. Retrieved September 21, 2004, from

Cakir, A. E. (2002). Virtual communities – a virtual session on virtual conferences. Behaviour & Information Technology, 21(5), 365-371.

Ciffolilli, A. (2003). Phantom authority, self-selective recruitment and retention of embers in virtual communities: the case of wikipedia. Retrieved September 21, 2004, from

Cox, A., Boehm, M., Summers, R., & Spyt, T. (2003). Using virtual community to support healthcare. Quality in Primary Care (11), 143-145.

De Cindio, F., Gentile, O., Grew, P., & Redolfi, D. (2003). Community networks: Rules of behavior and social structure. The Information Society (19), 395-406.

Driskell, R. B., & Lyon, L. (2002). Are virtual communities true communities? Examining the environments and elements of community. City & Community, 1(4), 373-390.

Ellis, D., Oldridge, R., & Vasconcelos, A. (2004). Community and virtual community. Annual Review of Information Science and Technology, 38, 145-186. Medford, NJ: Information Today.

Henri, F., & Pudelko, B. (2003). Understanding and analysing activity and learning in virtual communities. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning (19), 474-487.

Kling, R. (2000). Social informatics: A new perspective on social research about information and communication technologies. Prometheus, 18(3), 245-264.

Kling, R., & Courtright, C. (2003). Group behavior and learning in electronic forums: A sociotechnical approach. The Information Society (19), 221-235.

Long, B., & Baecker, R. (1997). A Taxonomy of Internet Connection Tools. Paper presented at the WebNet ’97, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Mainelli, M. (2003). Risk/reward in virtual financial communities. Information Services & Use (23), 9-17.

Mynatt, E., O’Day, V., Adler, A., & Ito, M. (1998). Networked communities: Something old, something new, something borrowed… Computer Supported Cooperative Work: The Journal of Collaborative Computing (7), 123-156.

Oudshoff, A. M., Bosloper, I. E., Klos, T. B., & Spaanenberg, L. (2003). Knowledge discovery in virtual community texts: Clustering virtual communities. Journal of Intelligent & Fuzzy Systems(14), 13-24.

Preece, J. (2001). Sociability and usability in online communities: determining and measuring success. Behaviour & Information Technology, 20(5), 347-356.

Rheingold, H. (1993). The Virtual Community: Homesteading on the Electronic Frontier. New York: HarperPerennial.

Rheingold, H. (2002). Smart Mobs The Next Social Revolution. Cambridge: Perseus Publishing.

Ruhleder, K. (2002). Understanding on-line community: the affordances of virtual space. Retrieved September 21, 2004, from

Schwen, T. M., & Hara, N. (2003). Community of practice: a metaphor for online design. The Information Society (19), 257-270.

Sieckenius de Souza, C., & Preece, J. (2004). A framework for analyzing and understanding online communities. Interacting with Computers(16), 579-610.

Ward, K. J. (1999). Cyber-ethnography and the emergence of the virtually new community. Journal of Information Technology (14), 95-105.

Wellman, B., & Gulia, M. (1999). Net surfers don’t ride alone: Virtual communities as communities. Retrieved September 24, 2004, from

Wilson, S. M., & Peterson, L. C. (2002). The anthropology of online communities. Annual Revue of Anthropology, 31, 449-467.

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